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Fruits and Vegetables
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Fruits and Vegetables

In fruits and vegetables facilities we make systems for: 

  • Pre-cooling after harvest through hydro-cooling or forced air cooling

  • Cold rooms for preservation with high relative humidity

  • Controlled atmosphere CA and ULO systems for longtime preservation

  • Ripening rooms for bananas

  • De-greening rooms for oranges

 

Fruits and vegetables are severely vulnerable to temperature and relative humidity.

Importance of temperature:

Inappropriate temperature can cause:

  • early ripening and decay caused by high temperatures leading to product deterioration and short life                                          
  • chilling injury which is expressed by visible spots on surface, brown or decolorized flesh and alteration on taste is caused by exposure to low temperature even above the product freezing point 
Importance of relative humidity:

Fruits and vegetable consist mainly of water (almost 90%), for this reason they require high relative humidity 85-95%.

If relative humidity is not high water is extracted from the fruit leading to loss of weight, shrinkage and unpleasant view and finally damages the value of the product.

Ethylene sensitivity:

Produces that are ethylene sensitive may be ruined in the presence of ethylene or undergo unpleasant alterations in their physical characteristics. Some products suffer premature ripening (such as plants and cut flowers) or others turn yellow or brown (such as cucumber and celery). It is recommended never to store together ethylene sensitive products with products which produce ethylene.

Controlled atmosphere conditions:

Controlled atmosphere conditions aim to extend the product market life by lowering its respiration rate and eliminating CO2 and/or ethylene in case the product is sensitive to these substances.                                                

Control atmosphere applications include:                                                         

  • CO2 absorbers which absorb and reduce the concentration of CO2 in the storage rooms, very common in apples and pears long-time storage
  • Ethylene absorbers to reduce the ethylene concentration into the storage rooms, most appropriate for kiwifruit storage, apricots, cut flowers and horticultural products.
  • N2 generators, to increase the concentration of N2 and consequently reduce the concentration of O2 into the storage room leading to produce respiration rate depression.

 

Recommendations for Fruits Storage Conditions

 

Storage Conditions

Control Atmosphere

Product

Storage TemperatureoC

Freezing TemperatureoC

Relative Humidity %

Storage Life

Ethylene Sensitivity

Oxygen %

Carbon Dioxide %

Apples

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fuji

0

-1.5

90 / 95 %

7 - 8 months

high

1 %

1 %

Gala

3

-1.5

90 / 95 %

7 months

high

1.5 %

1.5 %

Golden Delicious

0 / 1

-1.5

90 / 95 %

8 - 9 months

high

1 %

1.5 %

Jonathan

0

-1.5

90 / 95 %

7 months

high

3 %

5 %

McIntosh

2

-1.5

90 / 95 %

8 months

high

1.5 %

1 %

Pink Lady

0

-1.5

90 / 95 %

9 months

high

2 %

1 %

Red Delicious

0 / 1

-1.5

90 / 95 %

8 months

high

0.8 %

1%

Apricots

-0.5 / 0

-1.1

90 / 95 %

1 - 3 weeks

moderate

2 - 3 %

2 - 3 %

Bananas

13 / 15

-0.8

90 / 95 %

1 - 4 weeks

high

2 - 5 %

2 - 5 %

Blackberries

-0.5 / 0

-0.8

90 / 95 %

3 - 6 days

low

5 - 10%

15 - 20%

Blueberries

-0.5 / 0

-1.3

90 / 95 %

10 - 18 days

low

2 - 5%

12 - 20%

Cherries

-1 / 0

-2.1

90 / 95 %

2 - 3 weeks

 

10 - 20 %

20 - 25 %

Cranberries

2 / 5

-0.9

90 / 95 %

8 - 16 weeks

low

1 - 2 %

0 - 5%

Figs

-0.5 / 0

-2.4

85 / 90 %

7 - 10 days

low

5 - 10 %

15 - 20 %

Grapes

-0.5 / 0

-2.7

90 / 95 %

2 - 8 weeks

low

2 - 5 %

1 - 3 %

Grapefruits

14 / 15

-1.1

85 / 90 %

6 - 8 weeks

moderate

3 - 10 %

5 - 10 %

Kiwifruits

0

-0.9

90 / 95 %

3 - 5 months

high

1 - 2 %

3 - 5 %

Lemons

10 / 13

-1.4

85 / 90 %

1 - 6 months

 

5 - 10 %

0 - 10 %

Nectarines

-0.5 / 0

-0.9

90 / 95 %

2 - 4 weeks

moderate

1 - 2 %

3 - 5 %

Oranges

3 / 9

-0.8

85 / 90 %

3 - 8 weeks

moderate

5 - 10 %

0 - 5 %

Peaches

-0.5 / 0

-0.9

90 / 95 %

2 - 4 weeks

moderate

1 - 2 %

3 - 5 %

Pears

-1.5 / -0.5

-1.7

90 / 95 %

2 - 7 months

high

1 - 3 %

0 - 5 %

Plums & prunes

-0.5 / 0

-0.8

90 / 95 %

2 - 5 weeks

moderate

1 - 2 %

0 - 5 %

Quinces

-0.5 / 0

-2.0

90 %

2 - 3 months

high

 

 

Raspberries

-0.5 / 0

-0.9

90 / 95 %

3 - 6 days

low

5 - 10%

15 - 20%

Strawberries

0

-0.8

90 / 95 %

7 - 10 days

low

5 - 10%

15 - 20%

Recommendations for Vegetables Storage Conditions

 

Storage Conditions

Control Atmosphere

Product

Storage TemperatureoC

Freezing TemperatureoC

Relative Humidity %

Storage Life

Ethylene Sensitivity

Oxygen %

Carbon Dioxide %

Arugula

0

-0.5

95 / 100 %

7 - 10 days

high

 

 

Asparagus

0 / 2

-0.6

95 / 100 %

2 - 3 weeks

moderate

 

5 - 12 %

Artichoke Jerusalem

-0.5 / 0

-1.2

90 / 95 %

4 months

low

 

 

Beans

4 / 7

-0.6

90 / 95 %

7 - 10 days

moderate

 

 

Broccoli

0

-0.6

95 / 100 %

10 - 14 days

high

1 - 2 %

5 - 10 %

Brussels sprouts

0

-0.8

95 / 100 %

3 - 5 weeks

high

1 - 2 %

5 - 7 %

Cabbage (late crop)

0

-0.9

95 / 100 %

5 - 6 months

high

3 - 5 %

3 - 7 %

Carrot

0

-1.4

98 / 100 %

6 - 8 months

high

 

 

Cauliflower

0

-0.8

95 / 100 %

3 - 4 weeks

high

2 - 5 %

2 - 5 %

Celery

0

-0.5

98 / 100 %

1 - 2 months

moderate

1 - 4 %

3 - 5%

Cucumber

10 / 12

-0.5

85 / 90 %

10 - 14 days

high

3 - 5%

0 - 5%

Chinese cabbage

0

-0.9

95 / 100 %

2 - 3 months

high

1 - 2 %

0 - 6 %

Eggplant

10 / 12

-0.8

90 / 95 %

1 - 2 weeks

moderate

3 - 5 %

0 %

Garlic

0

-0.8

65 / 70 %

6 - 7 months

low

0.5 %

5 - 10 %

Leek

0

-0.7

95/ 100 %

2 months

moderate

1 - 2%

2 - 5 %

Lettuce

0

-0.2

98 / 100 %

2 - 3 weeks

high

2 - 5 %

0 %

Mushrooms

0

-0.9

90 %

7 - 14 days

moderate

3 - 21 %

5 - 15 %

Okra

7 / 10

-1.8

90 / 95 %

7 - 10 days

moderate

 

4 - 10 %

Onions Dry

0

-0.8

65 / 70 %

1 - 8 months

low

1 - 3 %

5 - 10 %

Onions Green

0

-0.9

95 / 100 %

3 weeks

high

2 - 4 %

10 - 20 %

Peas

0 / 1

-0.6

90 / 98 %

1 - 2 weeks

moderate

2 - 3 %

2 - 3 %

Pepper Green

7 / 10

-0.7

95 / 98 %

2 - 3 weeks

low

2 - 5 %

2 - 5 %

Parsley

0

-1.1

95 / 100 %

1 - 2 months

high

 

 

Potato (late crop)

4 /12

-0.8

95 / 98 %

5 - 10 months

moderate

 

 

Radicchio

0 / 1

 

95 / 100 %

3 - 4 weeks

   

 

Radish

0

-0.7

95 / 100 %

1 - 2 months

low

1 - 2 %

2 - 3 %

Spinach

0

-0.3

95 / 100 %

10 - 14 days

high

5 - 10 %

5 - 10 %

Squash

7 / 10

-0.5

95 %

1 - 2 weeks

moderate

3 - 5 %

5 - 10 %

Sweet potato

13 / 15

-1.3

85 / 95 %

4 - 7 months

low

 

 

Tomato

8 / 10

-0.5

85 / 90 %

1 - 3 weeks

low

3 - 5 %

3 - 5 %

Watermelon

10 / 15 %

-0.4

90 %

2 - 3 weeks

high

 

 

 The above tables contain information from ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook 2010.



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